India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. Selector .selector_input_interaction .selector_input. Selector .selector_input_interaction .selector_spinner. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world.Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, and Buddhism and Jainism arose.Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as Southeast Asia.is used by many Indian languages in its variations.It is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.) is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century BCE.
Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country.In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire.In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule.